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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

GLACIERS OF UNAKWHC INLET AND COLLEGE FIORD         297
small ice masses on mountain slopes and in cirques, including Tommy and Cap Glaciers, south of Crescent Glacier, and scores of smaller, unnamed glaciers.
Previous Studies. The glaciers of College Fiord were seen by Whidbey* of Vancouver's party in 1794, Applegate3 in 1887, Glenn,8 Castner,4 and Mendenhall6 in 1898, the Har-riman Expedition6 in 1899, and Grant, Paige, and Higgins in 1905 and 1909.7
The most important of these visits were those by the Harriman Expedition and by Grant and Higgins. In 1899 Gannett of the Harriman Expedition made a general map of College and Harriman Fiords, showing the glaciers. The other members of the Harriman Expedition also took many photographs, and Gannett and Gilbert studied the glaciers as fully as their brief visit permitted. During Grant's several visits more photographs and descriptions were made, and a still more detailed map was made by Higgins.
In 1910 (July 15-25), the National Geographic Society's Expedition studied the glaciers and glaciation of upper College Fiord in some detail, making the contour map reproduced as Map 7 and the soundings shown on Figs. 43 and Plate CXXVI.8
Whidbey's description of conditions in College Fiord, quoted by Vancouver,8 is of considerable interest. In June, 1794, he proceeded up College Fiord, from Point Pak-enham at its southwest entrance, through "much floating ice." After going three miles "they met such innumerable huge bodies of ice, some afloat, others lying on the ground near the shore in ten or twelve fathoms water, as rendered their further progress up the branch rash, and highly dangerous. This was, however, very fortunately, an object of no moment, since before their return they had obtained a distinct view of its termination about two leagues further in the same direction, by a firm and compact body of ice reaching from side to side, and greatly above the level of the sea; behind which extended the continuation of the same range of lofty mountains, whose summits seemed to be higher than any that had yet been seen on the coast.
"Whilst at dinner in this situation they frequently heard a very loud rumbling noise, not unlike loud, but distant thunder; similar sounds had often been heard when the party was in the neighborhood of large bodies of ice, but they had not before been able to trace the cause. They now found the noise to originate from immensei ponderous fragments of ice, breaking off from the higher parts of the main body, and falling from a very considerable height, which in one instance produced so violent a shock, that it
»Vancouver, George, A Voyage of Discovery to the Pacific Ocean and Bound the World, Vol. V, 180U pp. 312-314.
'Applegate, S., Manuscript map reproduced by Davidson, George. The Glaciers of Alaska that are-Shown on Russian Charts or Mentioned in Older Narratives, Trans, and Froc. Geog. Soc., Pacific, Vol. 3, 1904, p. 29 and map XI.
• Glenn, E. P., War Dept., Adj.-Gen. Office, No. XXV, 1899, pp. 19-21, and map (in pocket). «Castner, J. C., Ibid., pp. 190-191.
• Mendenhall, W. C., 20th A™. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part VII, 1900, pp. 273-325, and PI. XIX, A, i Gannett, Henry, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. X, 1899, pp. 510-511 and map;  Bull. Amer. Geag. Soc., Vol.
XXXI, 1899, p. 354; Burroughs, John. Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. 1,1901, pp. 69-70; Gilbert, G. K., Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 81-89 and map.
7 Grant, U. S. and Higgins, D. F., Glaciers of Port Wells, Prince William Sound, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc.,. Vol. XT.TTT, 1911, pp. 321-327; Tidewater Glaciers of Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula, Bull U. S. Geol. Survey (in preparation); Map in Bull. 448, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1910, PI. II.
i Martin, Lawrence, The National Geographic Society Researches in Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XXTT> 1911, pp. 551-554, 556-560. Some Features of Glaciers and Glaciation in the College Fiord, Prince William Sound, Alaska, Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde, Band VII, Heft 6, 1918, pp. 289-333.
• Op. cit., pp. 312-814.